论文模板2

[l1] 英语论文标准格式

摘  [l2]

 
随着改革开放的不断发展,中国与世界的交流的不断加深,英语作为一种国际性的语言,在我们的日常生活中占有举足轻重的地位。能够用英语交流已经成为英语学习者的主要目标。而听力理解作为语言输入的重要环节,在英语学习过程中起着至关重要的作用。而面对中国英语教学的现状,听力理解仍然是国内英语学习者的薄弱环节。本文通过对英语听力理解过程中所遇到的心理障碍、背景知识了解不足以及语言知识的匮乏三个主要影响因素的阐述,作者分析了英语学习者听力差的原因,希望能够帮助英语学习者及英语教师寻求到更为有效的解决方法[l3] 。
关键词:障碍; 听力理解; 克服; 听力理解过程[l4] 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
[l5] 

Abstract[l6]

[l7] 
With the development of the Reform-Opening Policy and the rapid development of the relationship with the outside world, communication in English has become a more crucial factor in social organization, and is regarded as the main target of English learners.  English, as an international language, plays an ever more significant role in daily life.  Given the importance of listening in language learning and teaching, it is essential for language teachers to help learners become effective listeners and for language learners to pay greater attention to listening comprehension.  Most English listeners believe that listening comprehension is only paying attention to what someone is saying or to sounds that they can hear.  They regard the process of listening comprehension as passive, but it is actually a very active and complicated process involving many factors, such as the speakers’ pronunciation, the listeners’ vocabulary and ability to comprehend meaning.  In order to improve their listening ability, English learners must not only make a diligent effort to listen to speakers’ words, but also make use of all their prior knowledge of English.  The main obstacles to effective English listening comprehension which must be addressed to improve listening comprehension in English are in the areas of limited phonetic knowledge, quantity of[l8]  mastered vocabulary, limited understanding in cultural background and some specific psychological obstacles.
Keywords[l9] :obstacles;listening comprehension;overcome;listening process[l10] 
 
 
[l11] 

Table of Contents[l12]

[l13] 
Outline ..................................................................... 1[l14] 
Introduction ............................................................................ 3
Chapter I  The Importance of Listening Comprehension.................................................. 5
1.1  Definition of the Listening Comprehension ............................................................................ 5
1.2  The Significance of Listening............................................................. 6
Chapter II  The Process of Listening Comprehension.................................................. 9
Chapter III  Obstacles and Countermeasures in the Listening Process.............................................................. 11
3.1  The Limitation of Phonetic Knowledge                11
         3.1.1  The Effect of Distinguishing Sounds on Listening                 11[l15] 
         3.1.2  The Effect of Liaison on English Listening 12
         3.1.3  The Effect of Intonation on English Listening 13
         3.1.4  The Effect of Stressed and Unstressed Words     14
3.2  Quantity of Mastered Vocabulary........................................................ 14
3.3  Limited Cultural Background Knowledge....................................................... 17
3.4  The Limitation of Psychological Factors    19
         3.4.1  Interest in Learning English Listening Comprehension................................................ 20
         3.4.2  The Effect of Different Environments on English Listening                 21
Conclusion....................................................... 24 Bibliography .......................................................................... 25
Acknowledgements .......................................................................... 28
[l16] 

Outline[l17]

[l18] 
Thesis[l19]  Statement:  The main obstacles to effective English listening comprehension which must be addressed to improve listening comprehension in English are in the areas of limited phonetic knowledge, quantity of mastered vocabulary, limited understanding in cultural background and some specific psychological obstacles.
I. Given[l20]  the importance of listening in language learning and teaching, it is essential for language teachers to help learners become effective listeners and for language learners to pay greater attention to listening comprehension.
A. All English learners need to understand the definition of listening comprehension.
B. More people who are qualified in listening and speaking skills will be demanded.
II. Understanding the process of listening comprehension is helpful for improving listening skills.
III. There are four main obstacles with corresponding countermeasures to improve the process of listening comprehension. 
A.Many English learners are limited in phonetic knowledge. 
1. Distinguishing sounds means to differentiate between two or more sounds which are in the neighboring position in terms of the place of articulation.
2. The meanings of an identical sentence are different if a speaker utters it using a different intonation or tone.
3. Stressed and unstressed words are another important factor affecting English listening.
[l21] 
B. The understanding and ability to use a large amount of vocabulary is of crucial importance both in reading comprehension and listening.
1. Although many students have studied a large amount of vocabulary, most of          them have difficulties in applying and making use of these words in speaking and listening. 
2.      The phenomenon of one word with several meanings is very common in English vocabulary.
C.A lack of cultural background knowledge is a big obstacle in listening comprehension.
1. According to Piaget’s schema theory, information that does not fit into a particular schema may not be comprehended, or may not be comprehended correctly.
2. The way that learners acquire knowledge under schema theory is quite similar to Piaget’s model of the process of development.
D. Psychological factors have a direct impact on students’ willingness and commitment to listening instruction.
IV.  Conclusion:  One’s ability to comprehend a listening text or conversation is based on whether he or she has mastered relevant knowledge and techniques for listening and understanding such as application of relevant phonetic knowledge, mastering large amounts of vocabulary, acquiring an adequate knowledge of cultural background and an awareness of significant psychological factors.
 
 
 
[l22] 

Introduction[l23]

[l24] 
With the development of the Reform-Opening Policy and the rapid development of the relationship with outside world, communication in English has become a more crucial factor in society, and is regarded as the main target of contemporary English learners. English, as an international language, plays an ever more significant role in daily life. Therefore, to improve English competency, English learners must improve their ablilities in listening, speaking, reading and writing all at the same time.  Although each of these skills is important, language learning depends on listening since it provides the aural input that serves as the basis for language acquisition and enables learners to interact in spoken communication ” (Nai and Wills).[G25]   Therefore, listening plays the most critical role in learning English because it is the source of language input.  A learner cannot master the language communicative process if they do not learn to listen effectively; they cannot efficiently communicate and cooperate with others unless they understand those that they are speaking with and listening to. 
In the practice of English teaching in China, listening has failed to receive as much attention as reading, writing and translation. What most listening comprehension teachers do in class is merely play listening materials and check the answers to the listening exercises, so most students learn little in class, and listening comprehension does not markedly increase.  Hence, listening is a very vulnerable area for most English learners in China.  It is necessary to foster English learners’ abilities in reading and writing as well as listening, but improving listening ability is an urgent problem that needs to be resolved now. … …
 [l26] 

Chapter I  The Importance of Listening Comprehension[l27]

[l28] 
1.1 The Definition of the Listening Comprehension[l29] 
Given the importance of listening in language learning and teaching, it is essential for [l30] language teachers to help learners become effective listeners and for language learners to pay greater attention to listening comprehension.  Most English listeners believe that listening comprehension is only paying attention to what someone is saying or to sounds that they can hear.  They regard the process of listening comprehension as passive and not able to be controlled by themselves as listeners.  In order to better understand the nature of listening comprehension, all English learners need to understand the definition of listening comprehension; this will help them to better recognize the importance of listening comprehension.
According to Howatt and Dakin (1974), listening is the ability to identify and understand what others are saying.  This process involves understanding a speaker’s accent or pronunciation, the speaker’s grammar and vocabulary, and comprehension of meaning.  An able listener is capable of doing these four things simultaneously.[l31] (qtd. [l32] in Nai and Wills)
Other listening specialists add another important component of listening, namely the role of empathy with the speaker.
Thomlison’s (1984) definition of listening includes “active listening”, which goes beyond comprehending as understanding the message content, to comprehension as an act of empathetic understanding of the speaker.  Furthermore, Gordon (1985) argues that empathy is essential to listening and contends that it is more than a polite attempt to identify a speaker’s perspectives.  Rather more importantly, empathetic understanding expands to “egocentric prosocial behavior”.  Thus, the listener altruistically acknowledges concern for the speaker’s welfare and interests.
Ronald and Roskelly (1985) define listening as an active process requiring the same skills of prediction, hypothesizing, checking, revising, and generalizing that writing and reading demand; and these authors present specific exercises to make
 
students active listeners who are aware of the “inner voice” one hears when writing.(qtd. in Nai and Wills)
Listening comprehension is a very active and complicated process involving many factors, such as the speakers’ pronunciation, the listeners’ vocabulary and ability to comprehend meaning.  In order to improve their listening ability, English learners must not only make a diligent effort to listen to speakers’ words, but also make use of all their prior knowledge of English.     
                              
1.2 The Significance of Listening [l33] 
Along with the success of Beijing’s application for the 2008 Olympic Games, China’s economy has developed rapidly and gradually deepened the Reform and Opening Policy.  In addition, with its entry into the WTO and opening its markets to the outside world, China has integrated more into the global economy.  As communication increases, more people who are qualified in listening and speaking skills will be demanded. To meet this need, Ministry of National Education has published new English curriculum standards emphasizing training objectives for English teaching which are based on students’ language skills, knowledge of languages, emotional attitudes, learning strategies and the development of cultural consciousness. 
[Note:  The purpose of this sample paper is to provide an authentic and accurate example of writing style, paper formatting, and paper content for Senior English Major students to follow in the preparation for their paper.  Since a complete paper is not necessary, several paragraphs or pages of text have been removed from this section.]
 
 
 

[l34]

Chapter II  The Process of Listening Comprehension

[l35] 
The listening process is often described from an information processing perspective as “an active process in which listeners select and interpret information that comes from auditory and visual clues in order to define what is going on and what the speakers are trying to express.” (Yang 44)[l36] 
It should be made clear that listening and understanding are two separate processes. We should distinguish between listening as a process which requires mere listening to the message and which does not necessarily involve interpretation or reaction to the text, and listening comprehension as a process which involves the meaningful interactive activity for an overall understanding of the text. Listening comprehension in this paper is taken to refer to the way listeners select and interpret information that comes from the auditory and/or visual clues in order to come to better understanding and comprehension of what speakers say. This view of listening comprehension is in accordance with second-language theory which views listening to spoken language as an active and a complex process in which listeners focus on selected aspects of aural input, construct meaning, and relate what they hear to existing knowledge. (Hasan)[G37] 
Understanding the process of listening comprehension is helpful for improving listening skills.  Listening is an active and complex process.  The process of listening comprehension can be divided into three cognitive processing phases—perception, parsing, and utilization.  Perceptual processing refers to maintaining attention to spoken input, parsing means encoding the input to establish a meaningful representation in short-term memory, and utilization concerns using the background knowledge to interpret the input for storage (Liang 225).[l38] 
 
 
 
 
 
[l39] 

Chapter III  Obstacles and Countermeasures in the Process of Listening

[l40] 
3.1 The Limitation of Phonetic Knowledge
Many factors affect learners’ English listening, but a student’s phonetic knowledge and ability will deeply affect their English listening ability.  Four basic factors are included in the area of phonetic knowledge: distinguishing sounds, liaison, intonation, and stressed and unstressed words.  Language students are most likely to pronounce English words in the way of their mother tongue or local dialect, seldom paying any attention to the stress, approximate sound, rhythm, plosive and intonation of a sentence.  However, there is a direct correlation between one’s phonetic knowledge and listening comprehension. As an active language, English pronunciation is the first obstacle that must be overcome.  “Irregular pronunciation and intonation influence information output as well as quality of receiving information” (Dong 47)[l41] .  This requires a speaker to express himself or herself as clearly as possible, but on the other hand, the speaker must also understand the opposite side.  This requires speakers to listen to others’ expressions; if a speaker/listener cannot understand the others’ words, there can be no real communication
3.1.1 The Effect of Distinguishing Sounds on Listening [l42] 
Distinguishing sounds means to differentiate between two or more sounds which are in the neighboring position in terms of the place of articulation.  For example, when hearing a sentence such as, “When I come back home, I can talk about my day with her, and then just forget about it,” many students will write “For get about it,” and not “Forget about it.”  
 
Distinguishing sounds is the students’ major problem in studying phonetics as well as in studying English listening. 
 
3.2  Quantity of Mastered Vocabulary
The understanding and ability to use a large amount of vocabulary is of crucial importance both in reading comprehension and listening.  “As formation component of language, vocabulary is said to be language’s building material.  To study English well without a certain amount of vocabulary is just like setting up a house without bricks” (Yang Weihong 122).[l43]   Although many students have studied a large amount of vocabulary, most of them have difficulties in applying and making use of these words in speaking and listening.  They will definitely encounter some difficult words while listening, especially when a topic is not very familiar to them.  When listening to English, an unknown word will always make students feel anxious. They will most probably stop suddenly and focus on the meaning of this new word and neglect the rest of the passage.  Therefore, mastering a certain amount of vocabulary, including being able to use it correctly is an essential basis for listening.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

[l44]

Conclusion

[l45] 
English listening is a complex process in which the students utilize various knowledge and techniques.  Through analysis of factors which affect English listening, it is clear that there are many reasons why students feel it difficult to comprehend English listening.  One’s ability to comprehend a listening text or conversation is based on whether he or she has mastered relevant knowledge and techniques for listening and understanding such as application of relevant phonetic knowledge, mastering large amounts of vocabulary, acquiring an adequate knowledge of cultural background and an awareness of significant psychological factors.  In addition, in order to solve these problems, some suggestions have been put forward.  First of all, it is essential that students learn and review some basic phonetic knowledge while drilling their listening texts.  Secondly, students should increase the amount of vocabulary that they know, which includes the ability to hear, understand, and use the words properly in context.  English learners should also attempt to gain knowledge of the cultural background in relevant areas.  Last, but not least, students must seek to overcome psychological factors which can influence their listening comprehension ability.
 
 
 
 
 
 
[l46] 

Bibliography

[l47] 
Dai[l48]  Liangzheng 戴良整.   “浅谈英语教学的听说领先”.  Journal of Suzhou Education College[l49] .  Jun. 2005: 21-25.
Dong Liping 董莉萍.  大学英语听力理解过程中的障碍因素及对策”[l50] .  (“Obstacles and Countermeasures in the Process of College English Listening Comprehension”). 《教学改革与实践》[l51] . ( Education Reform and Practice.)  April  2005: 42-49.
Hasan, Ali S. “Learners’ Perceptions of Listening Comprehension Problems”. Multilingual Matters Website.  http://www.multilingual-matters.net/lcc/013/0137/ lcc0130137.pdf.   Date accessed: April 3, 2006.
Hu Zhanglin, et al[l52] .  Linguistics: A Course Book.[l53]   Beijing: Beijing University Press, 1998. 
Liang Yu 梁玉. “影响英语专业听力教学因素解析”. 《教书育人》. August, 2005: 75-58.
Li Li 李丽.  “浅谈英语专业学生对听力课的恐惧感”. Journal of YanBei Teachers’ College.   April. 2001: 6-9.
Lu Baojiang 卢保江. “大学英语习得情感障碍研究与应对策略”. Journal of GuangXi Medical University. Sept. 21 2004: 79-82.
Nai Zhaoguo and Robin Wills.  “An Investigation of Factors Influencing English Listening Comprehension and Possible Measures for Improvement”.  The Australian Association for Research in Education website.  www.aare.edu.au/05pap/guo05088. pdf. Date accessed: May 3, 2006.
Song Fangqing.  “The Methods-Changing College English Listening Teaching”.  Foreign Languages and Their Teaching.  1999: 126.
 
Widmayer, Sharon Alayne. “Schema Theory: An Introduction”. George Mason University Website. http://www.kihd.gmu.edu/immersion/knowledgebase/strategies/cognitivism/ SchemaTheory.htm. Date accessed: April 3, 2006.
Xiao Liquan 肖礼全. “Get out of the Historical Misunderstanding in the English Education in China—Philosophical Thinking of Foreign Language”. Foreign Language Education.  2004: 67-71.
Xu Huiwen. “Some Thoughts on Developing the Students’ Listening Ability”.  Journal of Suzhou Education Institute.  June 2002: 22-29.
Yang Dejia 杨德嘉. “改进课堂教学方法提高英语听说能力”. Journal of Sichuan College of Education.  2005: 44-49.
Yang Weihong 杨卫红. “影响英语听力的因素及对策”. 《卫生职业教育-教学探讨》.   2005: 122.
Yu Rongmei.  “Exploring Methods of Teaching English Listening”.  Foreign Languages and Other Subjects in Middle Schools.  1996: 75.
[G54] 

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

Acknowledgements

[l55] 
During the process of composing my thesis, my advisor, Ms. XXX, and the second advisor, Ms. XXX, gave me many good suggestions for my work and helped me check the entire paper.  Meanwhile my good friend, XXX, also helped me search for references for this paper.  This has been a hard but joyful period of time for me;however, I have experienced the complete learning process and learned a great deal.  This has been an unforgettable time in my life.  I would also like to give my thanks to my teachers and friends; I could not have finished my project without their help.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

每页内容和页眉间都要空一行
摘要两字居中,字号为小二,字体为黑体, 不加粗。
毕业论文中文摘要 约300-500字,包括研究目的、研究方法、结果或结论,重点是结果或结论。摘要内容用小四号字,宋体,2倍行距, 首行缩进一个TAB键距离。标题与内容之间要加一个空行。
 
缩进一个TAB键距离,列出论文的关键词3-5个,词条间以分号相隔。
 
空一行
Abstract标题居中加粗,字号为小二,字体为Times New Roman。
空一行
 
Abstract内容200~350词,字号为小四,字体为Times New Romans, 不加粗,两边对齐,首行缩进一个Tab键距离,2倍行距。
缩进一个Tab键距离,复数,加粗
英文关键词3~5个,词条间分号相隔,最后一个词条后没有标点。
空一行
居中加粗,字号为小二,字体为Times New Roman
空一行
以下内容都是小四Times New Roman,2倍行距
目录应包括论文全部章节的标题(要求编到3级标题)和参考文献、谢辞,页码右对齐。
 
空一行
居中加粗,字号为小二,字体为Times New Roman
 
空一行
 
首行缩进,小四Times New Roman,2倍行距,两边对齐
 
提纲内容全部用完整的句子叙述。
空一行
空一行
居中加粗,字号为小二,字体为Times New Roman
空一行
网络资源的直接引用,夹注标出文章的作者
空一行
章节要另起页,标题全部是居中加粗,字号为小二,字体为Times New Roman
实词首字母大写。
空一行
二级标题靠左对齐,字号为小三,不加粗,字体为Times New Roman,
以下正文段落全部是首行缩进,Times New Roman小四号,2倍行距两边对齐
引文内容超过四行, 引文整体从左向右缩进10个空格, 不加引号,小四字号,单倍行距,  两边对齐.
qtd.表示转引自
二级标题靠左对齐,Times New Roman 小三,不加粗, 与上面二级标题内容之间应空一行,实词首字母大写。
空一行
空一行
直接引用的内容加引号, 出自书籍或期刊,在引用内容后加 (作者姓氏+空格+原文页码)
直接引文出自网络资源,在括号内注明作者
间接引用观点,不加双引号,但要在其后用括号标注出作者姓氏和该观点在原文出现的页码。
空一行
空一行
括号内标注出直接引文的出处(作者姓氏+空格+页码)。
三级标题左对齐,Times New Roman小四号字体,与正文和上级标题间不加空行,实词首字母大写。
直接引文,因前面有个引文的作者也姓杨,为了区分,这里要用作者全名+空格+页码
空一行
空一行
空一行
空一行
参考文献按照姓氏的字母顺序排列,不加序号。中文名字应先写汉语拼音,然后空一格写中文名字。
每条文献第一行顶格写,第二行缩进一个tab键。
所参考文章名放在双引号中
所参考文章出自的期刊或书名中文加书名号英文不加书名号但要斜体
作者三人以上则只写第一作者的名字,然后逗号加et al表示等
书名要斜体
请严格按照论文样本排列参考文献,要求文献总数不少于10,其中英文文献不少于5篇,网络资源不能超过5个。
空一行